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ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA)

Authors: MTA Cooperative Group

Journal: Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999

Summary:  This landmark study compared the effectiveness of medication management, behavioral therapy, a combination of both, and routine community care for children with ADHD. It found that medication management, particularly with stimulant medications, was more effective than behavioral therapy alone or community care. Combined treatment also showed significant benefits.

ADHD and Brain Structure: A Meta-Analysis of 55 MRI Studies

Authors: Hoogman et al.

Journal: Lancet Psychiatry, 2017

Summary:  This meta-analysis aggregated data from MRI studies to examine brain structure differences in individuals with ADHD. It found that certain brain regions, such as the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, were smaller in those with ADHD, suggesting neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder.

Genetic Risk for ADHD and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

Authors: Thapar et al.

Journal: Biological Psychiatry, 2013

Summary:  This study explored the genetic basis of ADHD, identifying several risk genes associated with the disorder. It demonstrated that genetic factors significantly contribute to the development of ADHD and that these genetic influences overlap with other neurodevelopmental disorders.

The Role of Diet and Nutrition in ADHD:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Nigg et al.

Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

Summary:  This review examined the effects of dietary factors on ADHD symptoms. It concluded that certain dietary interventions, such as eliminating artificial food colorings and supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids, could have a modest but significant impact on reducing ADHD symptoms.

Longitudinal Study of ADHD in a Population-Based Sample: Developmental Trajectories and Outcomes

Authors: Barbaresi et al.

Journal: Pediatrics, 2022

Summary:  This study tracked the developmental trajectories and outcomes of children with ADHD into adulthood. It provided insights into the long-term persistence of ADHD symptoms and associated functional impairments, highlighting the chronic nature of the disorder and the need for ongoing support and intervention.

Persistence and Remission of ADHD into Adulthood: An 11-Year Follow-Up Study

Authors: Barkley, R.A., et al.

Journal: Journal of Attention Disorders, 2002

Summary:  This study tracked the persistence and remission rates of ADHD from childhood into adulthood over 11 years. It found that while some individuals experience a reduction in symptoms, a significant proportion of individuals with childhood ADHD continue to have symptoms and functional impairments in adulthood.

Adult Outcomes of Childhood ADHD: A Controlled Population-Based Study

Authors: Klein, R.G., et al.

Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

Summary:  This study followed a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and assessed their outcomes in adulthood. It demonstrated that individuals with ADHD are at higher risk for a range of negative outcomes, including lower educational attainment, employment difficulties, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities.

Functional Impairments in Adults with Self-Reports of Diagnosed ADHD: A Controlled Study

Authors: Kessler, R.C., et al.

Journal: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2006

Summary:  This study examined the functional impairments associated with self-reported ADHD in adults. It found that adults with ADHD experience significant impairments in various life domains, including occupational, social, and personal functioning, compared to those without ADHD.

Neurobiological Correlates of Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analysis of Structural and Functional MRI Studies

Authors: Seidman, L.J., et al.

Journal: Biological Psychiatry, 2005

Summary:  This meta-analysis reviewed structural and functional MRI studies of adults with ADHD. It identified consistent neurobiological differences in brain regions associated with attention and executive function, such as the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, supporting the neurobiological basis of ADHD in adults.

Genetic and Environmental Influences on ADHD in Adults: A Twin Study

Authors: Larsson, H., et al.

Journal: Psychological Medicine, 2013

Summary:  This twin study investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to ADHD in adults. It found that ADHD in adults is highly heritable, with genetic factors accounting for a substantial proportion of the variance in ADHD symptoms, similar to findings in childhood ADHD.

Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacotherapy for Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Faraone, S.V., et al.

Journal: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2014

Summary:  This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for adult ADHD. It concluded that stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are effective in reducing ADHD symptoms in adults and are generally well-tolerated.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Safren, S.A., et al.

Journal: American Journal of Psychiatry, 2005

Summary:  This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with ADHD. It found that CBT significantly improved ADHD symptoms and associated functional impairments, highlighting the importance of incorporating psychological interventions alongside pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD.



TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation)

Comparative Efficacy and Acceptability of Non-Surgical Brain Stimulation for the Acute Treatment of Major Depressive Episodes in Adults: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mutz et al.

Journal: BMJ 2019

Summary:  This study conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and acceptability of various non-surgical brain stimulation techniques for treating major depressive episodes in adults. It found that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrated both efficacy and acceptability in the acute treatment of major depressive episodes.

Daily Left Prefrontal Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: George et al.

Journal: Archives of General Psychiatry, 2010; 67(5): 507-516

Summary:  This large-scale meta-analysis of TMS trials for treatment-resistant depression demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms compared to control treatments.

Efficacy and Safety of Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Prospective Multicentre Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

Authors: Carmi et al.

Journal: American Journal of Psychiatry 2019

Summary:  This study demonstrated that TMS over the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex significantly improved OCD symptoms and may be considered a potential intervention for patients who do not respond adequately to medication and therapy.

Cognitive Enhancement in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): A Review of Modalities, Potential Mechanisms, and Future Implications

Authors: Kim et al.

Journal: Experimental Neurobiology, 2019 Feb; 28(1): 1-16

Summary:  This study concluded that TMS is a therapeutic technology with "endless potential" for improving human cognition and enhancement in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Pain Management: A Systematic Narrative Review

Authors: Yang and Chang.

Journal: Frontiers in Neurology, 18 February 2020

Summary:  This review showed that TMS may be an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic pain conditions.

High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Li et al.

Journal: Brain, 2019 Oct; 142(10): 3280-3293

Summary:  This study provides valuable insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of TMS in traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that it can enhance functional recovery by promoting neurogenesis (regrowth of brain cells) and improving communication and functional brain pathways (BDNF/TrkB signaling).

Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Well-Trained Sprinters (Sports Performance)

Authors: Ruzzoli and Marzi.

Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology, 2010 Jun; 103(6): 2982-2989

Summary:  This study sheds light on the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the positive effects of TMS on sports performance. By enhancing reaction time, corticospinal excitability, and motor output efficiency, TMS may offer a promising non-invasive approach to optimise athletic training and performance in elite athletes.



MeRT (Magnetic Resonance Therapy)

Evaluating Robustness of Brain Stimulation Biomarkers for Depression: A Systematic Review of MRI and EEG Studies

Authors: Klooster et al.

Journal: Biological Psychiatry, 2023

Summary:  This study demonstrated that various biomarkers likely help predict clinical response to brain stimulation in depression treatment.

Transcranial Stimulation of Alpha Oscillations Up-Regulates the Default Mode Network

Authors: Clancy et al.

Journal: PNAS, 2022

Summary:  This study demonstrated a clinical link between alpha oscillations and the Default Mode Network (DMN), the brain's most prominent internal connectivity network. Clinical symptoms reduce when the DMN is better synchronised in the alpha range.

Effects of Rhythmic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Alpha-Band on Visual Perception Depend on Deviation From Alpha-Peak Frequency: Faster Relative Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alpha-Peak Improves Performance

Authors: Coldea et al.

Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2022

Summary:  This study demonstrated that stimulating alpha wave activity in specific brain regions (occipito-parietal region) improves perceptual and cognitive performance.

The Relationship Between Brain Oscillatory Activity and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Leuchter et al.

Journal: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2013

Summary:  This study demonstrated that synchronising TMS to a patient’s individual alpha frequency, administered to multiple brain regions, can enhance the effectiveness of TMS in treating depression.

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Treatment-Resistant Depression: Retrospective Data Analysis from Clinical Practice

Authors: Griffiths et al.

Journal: Open Journal of Depression, 2019

Summary:  This study demonstrated that the availability of a clinical TMS service can significantly impact symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Safety of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Allen et al.

Journal: Paediatric Neurology, 2016

Summary:  This study demonstrated that the safety of TMS in paediatric populations matches that of adults.

Outcomes from Individual Alpha Frequency Guided Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder – A Retrospective Chart Review

Authors: Ezedinma et al.

Journal: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 2022

Summary:  This study presented evidence for the efficacy and safety of TMS in improving ASD symptoms, quality of life, and comorbid sleep troubles in children.

Magnetic Resonance Therapy Improves Clinical Phenotype and EEG Alpha Power in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Taghva et al.

Journal: Trauma Monthly, 2015

Summary:  This study demonstrated that normalising EEG correlated with clinical improvement in PTSD using Magnetic Stimulation.

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